RSS

Category Archives: oop

On software design patterns

In this post I try to answer the controversial question

Are software design patterns good or bad?

To understand this question, just look at the following two pictures.

  1. Here are some nice design patterns. You can use them to decorate the floors in your house.
  2. Here is a masterpiece. Can you construct it using the above patterns, or any patterns at all?

I think the answer is already obvious. One cannot produce a masterpiece by just putting patterns together. Artists know that techniques are never as important as vision. That is why they spend their lives studying the nature of things such as the human body. Once they get hold of the essence, they use whatever techniques at hand to express what they want. They can also change the techniques or invent new ones as needed.

The same holds for computer programming. We need to keep in mind that design patterns are means and not ends. True programmers are never constrained by existing patterns. They observe and grasp the essence of things, inventing new techniques and patterns as needed.

Advertisements
 
 

ADTs and objects

After reading William Cook’s essay On Understanding Data Abstraction, Revisited, let me try to condense the difference between abstract data types (ADTs) and objects into a few words.

(To avoid ambiguity, I use “instances” to stand for data created by instantiating ADTs)

  • “Instances” created by the same ADT share the same functions (methods). Functions may be parameterized, but the code is the same in each instance. Because of this, they need to share the same representation.
  • “Objects” (as proposed by Cook) don’t necessarily share function code. Each object may have a completely different set of functions (with matching names and types). This is in essence the same as “call-backs” in GUI widgets. Because of this diversity, each object may have completely different representation.

Ironically, it is usually the former case in mainstream object-oriented languages like Java and C++. In Java you can somehow achieve the latter with interfaces and anonymous classes, but it is awkward. JavaScript’s prototype-based system seems to be closer to the essence of the latter, but still not feel natural.

But different from Cook’s view, I think it is better not to consider binary operations like set union as methods. Union may take two sets with different representations and create a new one, thus it can operate by using the “true methods” of both arguments (possibly iterators and membership).